Climate change has always been a global collective action problem and its solution requires international cooperation. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the challenges posed by global warming are mainly due to the cumulative historical and current greenhouse gas emissions of developed countries.
India is a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Protocol (KP) and the Paris Agreement (PA). Between 1850 and 2019, India with over 17% of the global population contributed only about 4% of global cumulative greenhouse gas emissions.
The UNFCCC has noted that, under the terms of the Paris Agreement, countries have communicated their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and Long-Term Low Emissions Development Strategy (LT-LEDS). India submitted its updated NDCs on 26th August 2022 and its long-term low-carbon development strategy on 14th November 2022.
In 2011, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) initiated a network project called National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) to study and address the impact of climate change on Indian agriculture.
Under the NICRA studies, it is projected that rainfed rice yields in India will marginally decrease by (<2.5%) in 2050 and 2080 while irrigated rice yields will decrease by 7% in 2050 and 10% in 2080. Maize yield is projected to reduce by 18-23% in 2100 and wheat yield by 6-25%. 23-54% more productivity in chickpeas is likely due to climate change.
Even though India is not part of the problem, and has done more than its fair share in addressing climate change. The Government of India is committed to combating climate change through its many programs and schemes, including the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which has focused on solar energy, energy efficiency, water, sustainable agriculture, health, and specific areas of the Himalayan ecosystem. Includes missions.
Strategic knowledge for sustainable housing, green India, and climate change. Climate action is included in all NAPCC frameworks.
Thirty-four States/Union Territories (UTs) have prepared their State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC) in line with NAPCC, taking into account the States specific issues related to climate change.
India has also actively taken the lead in promoting international cooperation through the International Solar Alliance and the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure and has undertaken various programs and activities through these arrangements.
The Department of Science and Technology is implementing two national missions: National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem and National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change.
A number of R&D projects supported by the missions have been conducted in India to assess the impact of climate change on sectors such as coastal vulnerability, health, agriculture, and water.
The relevant Ministries are assessing the impact of climate change on agriculture and other sectors from time to time. Agriculture in India is firstly the site of adaptation and not mitigation, though mitigation co-benefits may arise and be utilized from time to time depending on context-specific and local circumstances.