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Annie Mascarene: India’s Trailblazing Freedom Fighter, Politician, and Lawyer

Estimated reading time: 3 minutes

Annie Mascarene, born on June 6, 1902, in Trivandrum, Kerala, was an exceptional figure who left an indelible mark in the realms of Indian politics and independence movements. As the first woman Member of Parliament in India, Mascarene shattered barriers, paving the way for future generations of women to actively participate in politics. Her journey from being a lawyer to a prominent political leader is a testament to her courage, determination, and unwavering spirit.

Early Life and Education:

Annie Mascarene was born into a Latin Catholic family to Gabriel Mascarene, a government official of the Travancore State. She pursued her education at the prestigious Maharaja’s College in Travancore, earning double M.A. degrees in history and economics in 1925. Subsequently, Mascarene obtained a law degree from the Maharaja’s Colleges for Arts and Law in Trivandrum, following a teaching stint in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

Freedom Fighter and Early Politics:

Mascarene played a pivotal role in India’s freedom struggle and the integration of Princely States into the Indian nation. In 1938, she joined the newly formed political party, Travancore State Congress, alongside leaders like Akkamma Cherian and Pattom Thanu Pillai. Mascarene served on the party’s working committee and became a vocal advocate for responsible governance in Travancore.

Activism and Imprisonment:

Mascarene fearlessly voiced her opinions and criticized the government, leading to assaults, break-ins, and thefts at her home. She documented these incidents, further infuriating the police. Her activism resulted in numerous arrests and imprisonments from 1939 to 1947. Despite facing adversity, Mascarene’s resilience remained unwavering as she continued her fight for freedom and justice.

Parliamentary Career:

Annie Mascarene’s political career reached new heights when she became one of the fifteen women elected to the Constituent Assembly of India in 1946, where she was entrusted with the crucial task of drafting the country’s Constitution. She actively participated in the Assembly’s select committee, which examined the Hindu Code Bill. With the Indian Independence Act in 1947, the Constituent Assembly transitioned into the Parliament of the Dominion of India. Mascarene was reelected to the Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly in 1948 and served as a Minister in Charge of Health and Power in the Parur T K Narayana Pillai Ministry.

First Woman Member of Parliament:

Annie Mascarene made history by becoming the first woman Member of Parliament from Kerala in the 1951 general elections. She contested as an independent candidate and represented the Thiruvananthapuram Lok Sabha constituency. Her election to the Parliament was a groundbreaking achievement, inspiring women across the country to actively participate in politics.

Legacy and Demise:

Annie Mascarene’s contributions to the nation will forever be remembered. Her dedication to the freedom struggle, pioneering role as a woman in politics and advocacy for social reform have left an indelible impact. She passed away in 1963, and her resting place is at the Pattoor cemetery in Thiruvananthapuram, where her memory lives on as an emblem of courage and empowerment.


Annie Mascarene’s remarkable journey as an Indian independence activist, politician, and lawyer has shaped the history of women’s participation in Indian politics. Her indomitable spirit, unwavering dedication, and fearless pursuit of justice continue to inspire generations. Mascarene’s legacy serves as a reminder of the importance of breaking barriers, fighting for equality, and striving for a better future for all.

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